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      琺瑯廠

      Enamel Factory

      2022-04-08 14:31:56   來源:中國商務新聞網   作者:

      景泰公園、景泰橋、景泰路、景泰小學、景泰地鐵站……在北京城南,人們兜兜轉轉,總會時不時經由這些地名想起一種北京特色傳統手藝工藝制品——景泰藍,這些地名的命名皆是由于北京市琺瑯廠坐落于此。

      At the sight of some places in southern Beijing with “Jingtai” in their names such as Jingtai Park, Jingtai Bridge, Jingtai Road, Jingtai Primary School, and Jingtai Metro Station, people always think of a traditional handicraft product with Beijing characteristics: Jingtai Lan (Cloisonné). All these names came from the nearby Beijing Enamel Factory.

      景泰藍又稱“銅胎掐絲琺瑯”,這種宮廷文化歷經600多年歷史,依舊閃亮動人。景泰藍不是瓷器,而是采用金銀銅及多種天然礦物質為原材料制成的特種金屬工藝制品。其胎體由紫銅制成,胎體制成后,還需鏨刻,接著是掐絲,工匠按照圖紙,將寬約1毫米的銅絲,用鑷子彎制成不同形狀,一個指甲蓋大小的銅件就可能被彎折過幾十次之多才能成型。接下來掐絲和銅胎被一種中藥白芨黏合,在窯爐中被焊接在一起。之后還需點藍,景泰藍的琺瑯顏料由天然礦物研磨成的細顆粒組成,點藍一次的半成品將送入窯爐中燒制,之后是冷卻,點藍、燒藍的流程至少要持續三次,直到琺瑯釉與掐絲持平。一件景泰藍,還需經歷三道磨光,最后在掐絲表面鍍上一層金才能宣告完成。

      Cloisonné is technically called “fetal copper filigree enamel”. This product of court culture is over 600 years old and still shines brightly. Cloisonné is not porcelain, but a special metal craft product made of gold, silver, copper, and many natural minerals. Its body is made of purple copper. After the body is made, it needs to be carved and decorated with filigree. During the process, the craftsman bends the copper wire, which is about 1 mm wide, into different shapes with tweezers according to the drawing. A copper piece with the size of a fingernail may be bent dozens of times before it can be shaped. Next, the filigree and copper body are glued together by Chinese ground orchid and are soldered together in the kiln. The next process is enamel filling. The enamel pigments of cloisonné consist of fine particles ground from natural minerals. The semi-finished product after the first enamel filling will be fired in the kiln, followed by cooling. The processes of enamel filling and firing are repeated at least three times before the enamel glaze is level with the filigree. A piece of cloisonné also needs to be polished three times. Finally, a layer of gold plating is applied to the surface of the filigree before the completion of the product.

      景泰藍工藝的藝術特點可用形、紋、色、光四字來概括。一件精美的景泰藍器皿,制胎造型良好,裝飾掐絲優美,藍料華麗豐富,鍍金光亮輝煌。所以,景泰藍是集美術、工藝、雕刻、鑲嵌、玻璃熔煉、冶金等專業技術為一體,具有鮮明的民族風格和深刻文化內涵的工藝品,景泰藍制作技藝也被文化部評為國家級非物質文化遺產。

      The artistic characteristics of cloisonné craftsmanship can be summarized in four words: shape, pattern, color and gloss. An exquisite cloisonné vessel has a well-made body shape, beautiful decorative filigree, gorgeous and rich enamel, as well as shiny and brilliant gold plating. Therefore, integrating painting, craft, carving, inlay, glass melting, metallurgy, and other professional techniques, cloisonné is a craftwork with distinctive Chinese style and profound cultural implication. Cloisonné production techniques are also rated as national intangible cultural heritage by the Ministry of Culture.

      北京是中國景泰藍的發祥地,也是最為重要的產地。北京景泰藍造型典雅雄渾、紋樣繁復豐滿、色彩清麗莊重,給人以圓潤堅實、細膩工整、金碧輝煌、繁花似錦的藝術感受,是馳名世界、最具北京特色的傳統手工藝品之一,被稱為國寶“京”粹。

      Beijing is the cradle and the most important producer of Chinese cloisonné. Beijing cloisonné is elegant and impressive in shape, rich and complex in patterns, and clear and dignified in colors, impressing people as being round and solid, delicate and neat, glorious and splendid, and highly decorated. It is one of the world-famous traditional handicrafts with the most distinctive Beijing characteristics, and is known as a treasure of China produced in Beijing.

      北京市琺瑯廠是國內最大的生產景泰藍制品的誕生地。自新中國建立伊始,這里就是“國禮”誕生地,被譽為“新中國第一份國禮”的景泰藍臺燈就出自北京市琺瑯廠,北京琺瑯享譽國內外市場,并形成知名的“京琺”品牌。中南海、釣魚臺國賓館、首都機場專機樓等國家重要外交接待場所,都用“京琺”牌景泰藍作裝飾,許多經典制品作為國禮贈送外國首腦政要,也深受國內外景泰藍愛好者、收藏者的喜愛和業內人士的好評。

      Beijing Enamel Factory is the largest producer of cloisonné products in China. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, it has been the birthplace of gifts presented to foreign government leaders. The cloisonné lamp, known as “the first national gift of PRC”, was made by the Beijing Enamel Factory. Beijing enamel is well known in both domestic and international markets, and the famous “Jingfa” brand has been established. China’s important diplomatic reception venues such as Zhongnanhai, Diaoyutai State Guesthouse, and Special Flight Terminal of the Capital Airport are decorated with “Jingfa” cloisonné vessels. Many classic products have been presented to foreign dignitaries as national gifts. They are loved by cloisonné lovers and collectors at home and abroad, and praised by industry practitioners.

      如今,北京市琺瑯廠作為國家級非物質文化遺產景泰藍制作技藝的保護傳承基地、國家級非物質文化遺產生產性保護示范基地,依托自身優勢,緊密結合行業特點,以景泰藍文化特色為主導,積極探尋景泰藍文化的傳播與發展,建設有國內首座景泰藍藝術博物館并開放式生產制作技藝展示區,提供制作工藝的專業講解,讓景泰藍藝術越來越融進人們的日常生活。

      Beijing Enamel Factory is a base for preserving and inheriting national intangible cultural heritage, cloisonné production techniques, as well as a demonstration base for productive protection of national intangible cultural heritage. Based on its own strengths and the characteristics of the industry, Beijing Enamel Factory focuses on the features of cloisonné culture and actively explores the dissemination and development of the culture. It has built the first cloisonné art museum and an open production skills display area in China, providing professional explanations of the production processes, so that the art of cloisonné is increasingly integrated into people’s daily life.


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