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      墨香雅韻一得閣

      Yi De Ge Creates Elegance with the Aroma of Ink

      2022-04-08 14:31:56   來源:中國商務新聞網   作者:

      書畫藝術是中國最具特色的傳統藝術門類之一,其用具也獨具一格,“文房四寶”筆、墨、紙、硯必不可少。但其使用起來卻略有不便,墨塊在硯臺上研墨,不但費功夫,而且每次只能研磨出很少的量,有時甚至需要專人研磨。這種情況的改善發生在一百多年前,公元1865年,謝松岱先生在北京琉璃廠發明了墨汁,并在自家墨汁店門口寫下一幅楹聯“一藝足供天下用,得法多自古人書”,取楹聯第一個字“一得”為店名,這家墨汁店就是一得閣。

      The art of calligraphy and painting is one of the most distinctive traditional art categories in China. Their unique utensils are the “four treasures of the study”: ink brush, inkstick, paper, and inkstone. However, inksticks are not convenient to use. To make ink, the inkstick has to be continuously ground on the inkstone, which is laborious and unproductive. Sometimes even a dedicated grinder is needed. Things changed more than a century ago. In 1865, Mr. Xie Songdai invented ink in Beijing Colored Glaze Factory and wrote a couplet, “One craft is enough for the world; Method came from ancient books”, which was hung at the entrance of his ink store. He named the ink store after the first characters of the couplet, “Yi De” (“One” and “Method”), which was the origin of Yi De Ge.

      謝松岱本為進京趕考的文人,第一次考試未能得中,他深感研墨太費時間,耽誤答卷,如果能制出一種墨汁直接用于書寫,既省時又省力,豈不方便了許多嗎?于是經過“屢試屢誤,屢誤屢悟,漸知收瓶入盒之法遂無忽淺忽深之弊”,他終于選用油煙,再加上其他輔料,制成了同墨塊效果相同墨汁,一經上市,便受到文人墨客的歡迎。

      Xie Songdai was originally a scholar who went to the capital for imperial examinations. When he failed the first exam, he thought that grinding the inksticks was so time-consuming that he could not finish writing within the given time. Wouldn’t it be much more convenient if ink could be made for writing directly, saving both time and effort? So after “trial and error, (I) have gradually got to know the method of collecting (soot) into a bottle or box, so (the ink color) would not be too light or dark”. He finally made ink with oil soot and other auxiliary materials with the same effect as inksticks. The ink became popular among literati as soon as it was launched to the market.

      經過一百多年的發展,一得閣發展出了多種墨汁,雖然都是黑墨,卻分門別類,各不相同,一得閣制墨技藝也被評為國家級非物質文化遺產,由一得閣生產的墨汁已經成為中國眾多書畫家、書畫愛好者的首選,舒同、啟功、范曾等大家都曾光顧一得閣。一得閣墨汁,一是味道好,隱隱有藥香。二是層次特別豐富,如果書畫中的墨色變化少而乏味,就會顯得呆板,缺乏生氣與活力,極大地影響書畫質量。一得閣墨汁能生動地展現出墨分五色的焦、濃、重、淡、清,再加上每種墨色中枯、干、渴、潤、濕的不同演繹,可以充分地展示書畫作品墨色運用上的豐富變化,成就一幅幅好作品。

      After more than 100 years of development, Yi De Ge has produced a variety of inks, all of which are black in different categories. Yi De Ge’s ink-making skill has been added to the National List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of China. The ink produced by Yi De Ge has become the preferred choice of Chinese calligraphers, painters, and enthusiasts of the art, with such great calligraphers as Shu Tong, Qi Gong and Fan Zeng having used ink made by Yi De Ge. Its ink smells good and gives off faint herbal fragrance. The layers of ink are also particularly rich. If there are few and boring ink variations in a painting or calligraphy work, it will look dull, which greatly worsens the quality of the work. Yi De Ge ink can vividly show the scorched, thick, heavy, light and clear colors. Together with the faded, dry, drained, moist, and wet expressions in each ink color, it can fully demonstrate the rich variations in the use of ink in calligraphy and painting and create good works.

      過硬的產品質量使一得閣作為一個百年品牌,雖歷經清末、民國直至今天的新中國,幾乎依舊是墨汁的代名詞。一得閣墨汁用料講究,配方獨特。謝崧岱曾將制墨之法總結為八條:“取煙第一;研煙第二;和膠第三;去渣第四;收餅第五;入盒第六;入麝第七;成條第八?!蹦髁蠟樘亢诤凸悄z,炭黑中加入骨膠可以產生托浮力,讓墨著紙而不濕,而膠的比例決定著墨的品質和呈現出來的效果,一得閣百年間精研配方,達到了“焦墨濃郁,黑而不澀,淡墨清新,淡而不散”的理想狀態。一得閣在墨汁中加入中藥材,冰片、麝香、艾草等輔料的加入使墨汁充滿藥香。用過墨汁的人都知道,和其他墨汁臭臭的氣味不同的是,一得閣墨汁有一股淡淡的香味兒,這香味兒已經成了一得閣的特色,是一得閣不可或缺的標志。目前,一得閣制墨技藝仍屬于國家保密配方,但僅僅是公開的部分用料,也體現了一得閣墨汁的藥墨特性。

      The superior product quality has made Yi De Ge, a century-old brand, still synonymous with ink through the changes of the late Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China, and the People’s Republic of China. Yi De Ge ink is made with particular ingredients and unique recipes. Xie Songdai once summarized the method of making inksticks as eight processes: “The first is to collect the soot; the second is to grind the soot; the third is to mix soot with the glue; the fourth is to remove the slag; the fifth is to make ink cakes; the sixth is to put them into boxes; the seventh is to add musk, and the eighth is to make inksticks.” The main ingredients of the ink are carbon black and bone glue. Adding bone glue to the carbon black can generate buoyancy, so that the ink can be applied to the paper without getting wet, and the proportion of glue determines the quality and effect of the ink. Yi De Ge has refined the recipes over the past century to achieve the ideal state of “the scorched ink is rich, black but not scratchy. The light ink is fresh, light but not loose.” Yi De Ge has added Chinese medicinal materials to ink. The addition of borneol, musk, mugwort, and other excipients makes the ink full of medicinal fragrance. As anyone who has used ink knows, Yi De Ge ink, unlike other ink with a foul smell, gives off a slight aroma. The aroma has become a signature of Yi De Ge, an essential symbol of the brand. Yi De Ge’s recipes for making ink are national secrets, but some of the ingredients that have been made public manifest the medicinal ink properties of its products.

      時代變化速度令人目不暇接,很多老字號都因為無法適應時代而走向了衰敗,但一得閣沒有固步自封。一得閣雖然用的是百年前的老配方,但積極改進操作,主動從工業化中受益。墨汁生產中化膠是最關鍵的工藝,在這一環節現在的一得閣雖然仍沿用人工操作,操作過程卻從原來的火燒改到用電,既受益于設備的進步,又很好地保持了基本工藝不變。榮譽和褒獎只屬于過去,一得閣明白企業的主旋律是創新和發展,積極地為品牌注入新的活力,煥發新的生機。

      As times are changing at a dizzying pace, many time-honored brands have been on the decline because they cannot adapt to the time. But Yi De Ge has not rested on its laurels. Although Yi De Ge uses century-old recipes, it has industrialized its operations. In the production of ink, glue boiling is the most critical process. Yi De Ge still uses manual operation to boil the glue, but the boiling process has been electrified. It has benefited from advances in equipment, while keeping the basic process unchanged. Honors and accolades only mean the previous achievements. Yi De Ge understands that the essence of a company is innovation and development. It has to add new vitality into the brand to make it brim with vigor.

      當代一得閣最典型的一個創新案例是金墨。春節時,用紅紙寫金字非常喜慶,金墨擁有不小的市場,但從前金墨都是由書法家自己配制,如今一得閣把金墨制成了產品,具有金色顯色真實,隨用隨取的提點,獲得了書法家的廣泛認可,每到春節時,一得閣的金墨都是熱點產品,甚至一瓶難求。

      One of the most typical examples of Yi De Ge’s innovation today is gold ink. During the Chinese New Year, it is very festive to write gold characters on red papers. Gold ink has a large market, but it was prepared by calligraphers themselves in the past. Yi De Ge has made gold ink a product with true color rendering and ready-to-use features. The product has gained wide recognition among calligraphers. Yi De Ge’s gold ink is a hot seller and even hard to come by when the Chinese New Year is around the corner.

      如今,一得閣已經形成以墨汁為龍頭,以高端文房四寶、傳統印泥、墨塊為擴充,多元化的產品構成。新產品與傳統經典產品交相輝映,務求滿足不同消費者的多方面需求,讓“一得閣”這個傳統金字招牌煥發出新的生機。

      Yi De Ge has established a diversified product portfolio centered on ink. Some secondary products include high-end “four treasures of the study”, traditional inkpads, and inksticks. The new products complement the traditional and classic ones to meet the various needs of consumers and make the traditional brand of “Yi De Ge” shine again.


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