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      榮寶齋

      Rong Bao Zhai

      2022-04-08 14:31:56   來源:中國商務新聞網   作者:

      和平門外琉璃廠西街,是一條古樸典雅、川流不息的大街,街上有這么一家店,成立至今近350年,取“以文會友,榮名為寶”雅意得名,徐悲鴻、齊白石、李可染都是它的擁躉,與它邂逅于翰墨,結緣于丹青。它就是成立于1672年的松竹齋,如今的榮寶齋。

      Located outside the Heping gate of Beijing is Liulichang West Street. On this simple, elegant and flowing street, there is a shop, which has a history of nearly 350 years, and has a name coming from “make friends through culture, and take honor as the treasure.” Xu Beihong, Qi Baishi and Li Keran were all its loyal customers, associated with it through Chinese traditional calligraphy and painting. The shop is Rong Bao Zhai, the successor of Song Zhu Zhai founded in 1672.

      榮寶齋從初創時的琉璃廠南紙店,發展為名聞遐邇的中華老字號、東方藝術畫廊,其品牌內涵在歲月的變遷和一代又一代榮寶齋人的努力下,得以不斷擴充、豐富,逐漸成長為一家集書畫經營、文房用品、木版水印、裝裱修復、拍賣典當、出版、展覽、教育相關文化于一體的綜合性文化央企。

      Rong Bao Zhai has developed from a south paper shop in Liulichang Street to a well-known Chinese time-honored brand and oriental art gallery. With its brand connotation continuously expanded and enriched with the changes of years and the efforts of generations of Rong Bao Zhai people, it has gradually grown into a central State-owned enterprise engaged in comprehensive cultural business, which integrates the culture of calligraphy and painting management, stationery, woodblock printing, mounting and restoration, auction, pawn, publication, exhibition, and education.

      三百多年滄桑巨變,歷經榮辱興衰,人事更迭,至今“榮寶齋”這三個字仍閃爍著耀眼的光芒,在每一段歷史的傳承、發展、延續中,都凝聚著一代又一代榮寶齋人的文化追求。

      Over the past more than 300 years, Rong Bao Zhai has experienced the rise and fall of honor and disgrace and personnel changes. Up to now, the three words “Rong Bao Zhai” still shine brightly. In the inheritance, development and continuation of each period, it condenses the cultural pursuit of Rong Bao Zhai people from generation to generation.

      1896年,榮寶齋在其東側的井院胡同2號設立了“帖套作”,開始以木版水印技藝自刻、自印箋紙,產品質量高,不久便名聲鵲起。木版水印技藝,是根據畫稿筆跡的粗細曲直、圓潤剛柔,設色的深淺濃淡、向背陰陽,進行分版勾摹,分別刻成若干塊木板,然后對照原作,由淺入深逐筆、逐色地依次疊印,力求逼肖原作。新中國成立后,榮寶齋不滿足于印制當代畫家名作,開始把目光轉移到著名的古畫精品上來。1954年,榮寶齋成功印制了清代王云的絹本山水《月夜樓閣》,填補了1300年來雕版絹本印刷的空白。后來,榮寶齋以木版水印技藝印制的古代名畫由小而大,由單幅到巨幅。在單幅精品中有宋代馬遠的《踏歌圖》、宋代佚名的《出水芙蓉》、宋代劉松年的《秋窗讀易圖》等,南唐顧閎中的《韓熙載夜宴圖》,唐代張萱的《虢國夫人游春圖》和宋代張擇端的《清明上河圖》這三件巨幅木版水印作品先后在20世紀八九十年代成功復制。榮寶齋人通過創新,成功地發展了木版水印技藝,攀登了一個又一個藝術高峰。

      In 1896, Rong Bao Zhai set up a “tietaozuo” workshop at No. 2 Jingyuan Hutong on the east side of itself, and began to carve and print paper using woodblock printing. The workshop soon became famous owing to the high-quality products. The woodblock printing technique is a way of printing on textiles and paper. The technicians copy the original painting and then carve it on several boards according to the strength of the brush strokes, as well as the shades of colors. Then, technicians reprint the painting one by one stroke, with the colors shifting from light to dark. By referring strictly to the original work, the woodblock printing aims to achieve exactly the same effect as the original. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Rong Bao Zhai was no longer satisfied with printing only famous contemporary works, and began to focus on ancient paintings. In 1954, it successfully printed Wang Yun’s landscape painting “Pavilion on a Moonlit Night” on silk, filling the gap of 1,300 years of ink-block silk printing. Later, ancient famous paintings were made by woodblock printing from small to large. Among the fine works of single-width are the “Ta Ge Tu” by Ma Yuan of the Song Dynasty, the “Lotus on the Water” by an unknown painter of the Song Dynasty, and “Read the Book of Changes by the window in autumn” by Liu Songnian of the Song Dynasty, etc. The woodblock watermark works of huge-width include “Han Xizai Night Banquet” by Gu Hongzhong of the Southern Tang Dynasty, “a Lady of the Dukedom of Guo Going on a Spring Outing” by Zhang Xuan of the Tang Dynasty and “Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival” by Zhang Zeduan of the Song Dynasty. The three woodblock printing works were completed in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Through innovation, Rong Bao Zhai people have successfully developed this technique and climbed one art peak after another.

      書畫裝裱修復技藝,是榮寶齋另一項非物質文化遺產。二十世紀五十年代后期,琉璃廠的書畫裝裱技師大都匯聚到榮寶齋,經榮寶齋修復的書畫名作數以千計。榮寶齋的裝裱是北派裝裱——京裱最主要的代表,在繼承宣和裱的基礎上,兼收南北各派所長,用料、選材極為考究,采用傳統工藝,形成了自己特有的風格。幾十年來,榮寶齋從事裝裱工作的藝人們,系統地總結了前人的寶貴經驗,在長期的實踐中成功將多幅書畫名作毫無損傷地裝裱修復成幅,并使之色彩穩固,被專家稱之為“藝苑奇跡”。尤其在拯救搶修古代書畫方面,有許多獨特的建樹,由榮寶齋技師完成的人民大會堂巨作《江山如此多嬌》,代表了榮寶齋裝裱修復的高超技藝。

      The exquisite mounting and restoration technique of calligraphy and painting is another intangible cultural heritage of Rong Bao Zhai’s. In the late 1950’s, most of the calligraphy and painting mounting technicians on Liulichang Street gathered in Rong Bao Zhai, and thousands of famous calligraphy and painting works were restored by Rong Bao Zhai. Rong Bao Zhai mounting is the most important representative of Beijing mounting of the northern school. On the basis of inheriting the Xuanhe mounting, it also integrates the advantages of the northern and southern schools. With the strict selection of materials, it adopts traditional technology to form its own unique style. For decades, Rong Bao Zhai’s artists engaged in mounting have systematically summarized the valuable experience of predecessors in long-term practice and successfully mounted and repaired many famous calligraphy and painting works without damage and discoloration, which is called “art garden miracle” by experts. In particular, Rong Bao Zhai has made many unique achievements in restoring and repairing ancient calligraphy and painting. “The Land Is So Rich in Beauty”, the masterpiece completed by Rong Bao Zhai technicians and hung in the Great Hall of the People represents superb skills in mounting and repairing.

      薪火相傳,與時俱進。一直以來,為了更好地繼承民族文化、保護和傳承中華文化遺產,榮寶齋緊密團結了一大批文化藝術專家、技術人才等,他們為了榮寶齋兢兢業業,也吸引著文化鴻儒、丹青巨擘往來于榮寶齋,留下了許多佳話,使這座藝術殿堂熠熠生輝?!皹s寶齋”的品牌經歷歲月的洗禮,愈發光澤厚重。

      Rong Bao Zhai always keeps pace with the times while passing on the torch from generation to generation. For a long time, in order to better inherit the national culture, protect and inherit the Chinese cultural heritage, Rongbaozhai has gathered a large number of cultural and art experts and technical talents who have worked hard for it, and also attracted cultural scholars and elites, who have left much-told stories and brightened this art hall. The brand of “Rong Bao Zhai” has gone through the baptism of years, growing in the grace of traditional culture.


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